Antigonus I Monophthalmus

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Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Greek: Ἀντίγονος ὁ Μονόφθαλμος, "Antigonus the One-eyed", 382 BC - 301 BC) son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. During his early life he served under Philip II, and he was a major figure in the Wars of the Diadochi after Alexander's death, declaring himself king in 306 BC and establishing the Antigonid dynasty.




Antigonus was appointed governor of Greater Phrygia in 333 BC. As such, he was largely responsible for defending Alexander's lines of supply and communication during the latter's extended campaign against the Achaemenid Persian Empire. After Alexander's victory at Issus, the Persian mercenary commander Memnon of Rhodes ordered a counter-attack into Asia Minor in an attempt to sever Alexander's lines of supply and communication. Antigonus defeated the Persian forces in three separate battles.

In the division of the provinces after Alexander's death in 323 BC, Antigonus also received Pamphylia and Lycia from Perdiccas, regent of the empire, at the Partition of Babylon. He incurred the enmity of Perdiccas, the regent, by refusing to assist Eumenes to obtain possession of the provinces allotted to him, Paphlagonia and Cappadocia. Leonnatos had left with his army for Greece, leaving Antigonus alone to deal with Cappadocia, a task he couldn't complete without aid. Perdiccas saw this as a direct insult on his authority and went up with the royal army himself to conquer the area, which he did. From there he was to turn west towards Phrygia in order to humble Antigonus, who escaped with his son Demetrius to Greece, where he obtained the favour of Antipater, regent of Macedonia (321 BC), and Craterus. Soon after, on Perdiccas's death in 321 BC, a new division of the empire took place at Triparadisus. Antigonus found himself entrusted with the command of the war against Eumenes, who had joined Perdiccas against the coalition of Antipater, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Craterus, and the other generals. Eumenes was defeated and forced to retire to the fortress of Nora (Greek: Νῶρα) in Cappadocia, and a new army that was marching to his relief was routed by Antigonus.

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