Antoninus Pius

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Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus[1] (19 September 86 – 7 March 161), commonly known as Antoninus or Antoninus Pius, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[2] He did not possess the sobriquet "Pius" until after his accession to the throne. Almost certainly, he earned the name "Pius" because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian;[3] the Historia Augusta, however, suggests that he may have earned the name by saving senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years.[4]


Early life

Childhood and family

He was the son and only child of Titus Aurelius Fulvus, consul in 89[2] whose family came from Nemausus (modern Nîmes).[5] He was born near Lanuvium[6] and his mother was Arria Fadilla. Antoninus’ father and paternal grandfather died when he was young and he was raised by Gnaeus Arrius Antoninus,[2] his maternal grandfather, reputed by contemporaries to be a man of integrity and culture and a friend of Pliny the Younger. His mother married to Publius Julius Lupus (a man of consular rank) suffect consul in 98, and bore him two daughters Arria Lupula and Julia Fadilla.[7]

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