Archaeopteryx

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Archaeopteryx (pronounced /ˌɑrkiːˈɒptərɨks/ AR-kee-OP-tər-iks), sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird"), is the earliest and most primitive bird known. The name derives from the Ancient Greek ἀρχαῖος (archaīos) meaning "ancient", and πτέρυξ (ptéryx), meaning "feather" or "wing".

Archaeopteryx lived in the Late Jurassic Period around 150–148 million years ago, in what is now southern Germany during a time when Europe was an archipelago of islands in a shallow warm tropical sea, much closer to the equator than it is now.

Similar in shape to a European Magpie, and possibly the size of a raven,[1] Archaeopteryx could grow to about 0.5 metres (1.6 ft) in length. Despite its small size, broad wings, and inferred ability to fly or glide, Archaeopteryx has more in common with small theropod dinosaurs than it does with modern birds. In particular, it shares the following features with the deinonychosaurs (dromaeosaurs and troodontids): jaws with sharp teeth, three fingers with claws, a long bony tail, hyperextensible second toes ("killing claw"), feathers (which also suggest homeothermy), and various skeletal features.[2][3] The features above make Archaeopteryx a clear candidate for a transitional fossil between dinosaurs and birds.[4][5] Thus, Archaeopteryx plays an important role not only in the study of the origin of birds but in the study of dinosaurs. The first complete specimen of Archaeopteryx was announced in 1861, only two years after Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, and it became a key piece of evidence in the debate over evolution. Over the years, nine more fossils of Archaeopteryx have surfaced. Despite variation among these fossils, most experts regard all the remains that have been discovered as belonging to a single species, though this is still debated.

Many of these eleven fossils include impressions of feathers—among the oldest direct evidence of such structures. Moreover, because these feathers are an advanced form (flight feathers), these fossils are evidence that the evolution of feathers began before the Late Jurassic.[6]

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