Astronaut

related topics
{service, military, aircraft}
{ship, engine, design}
{language, word, form}
{country, population, people}
{day, year, event}
{math, energy, light}
{woman, child, man}
{work, book, publish}
{government, party, election}
{water, park, boat}
{group, member, jewish}

An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. While generally reserved for professional space travelers, the term is sometimes applied to anyone who travels into space, including scientists, politicians, journalists, and tourists.[1][2]

Until 2003, astronauts were sponsored and trained exclusively by governments, either by the military, or by civilian space agencies. With the sub-orbital flight of the privately-funded SpaceShipOne in 2004, a new category of astronaut was created: the commercial astronaut.

Contents

Definition

The criteria for what constitutes human spaceflight vary. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) Sporting Code for astronautics recognizes only flights that exceed an altitude of 100 kilometers (62 mi).[3] In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 50 miles (80 km)[4] are awarded astronaut wings.

Full article ▸

related documents
HH-60 Pave Hawk
Great White Fleet
North American Aerospace Defense Command
Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
Ship commissioning
United Airlines Flight 175
Reconnaissance
Seabee
Commodore (rank)
United Airlines Flight 93
Military of Croatia
Visual flight rules
Community Emergency Response Team
Croatia Airlines
James L. Jones
Chester W. Nimitz
Tyndall Air Force Base
McChord Air Force Base
K. I. Sawyer Air Force Base
Military of Cuba
Corporate title
Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport
Military of Paraguay
Military of Slovenia
Adelaide Airport
Fleet Air Arm
Civilian Conservation Corps
New Zealand Defence Force
Private (rank)
Francis Gary Powers