Australian Capital Territory

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The Australian Capital Territory, often abbreviated to the ACT, is the capital territory of the Commonwealth of Australia and its smallest self-governing internal territory. It is enclaved within New South Wales, and regularly referred to as Australia's 'Bush Capital'.

The need for a National Territory was flagged by colonial delegates during the Federation conventions of the late 19th century. Section 125 of the Australian Constitution provided that following Federation in 1901, land would be ceded freely to the new Federal Government. The territory was transferred to the Commonwealth by the state of New South Wales in 1911, two years prior to the naming of Canberra as the National Capital in 1913.

The floral emblem of the ACT is the Royal Bluebell and the faunal emblem is the Gang-gang Cockatoo.[2][3]



The ACT is bounded by the Goulburn-Cooma railway line in the east, the watershed of Naas Creek in the south, the watershed of the Cotter River in the west, and the watershed of the Molonglo River in the north-east. The ACT also has a small strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula, which is the northern headland of Jervis Bay.[5]

Apart from the city of Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory also contains agricultural land (sheep, dairy cattle, vineyards and small amounts of crops) and a large area of national park (Namadgi National Park), much of it mountainous and forested. Small townships and communities located within the ACT include Williamsdale, Naas, Uriarra, Tharwa and Hall.

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