An autocracy is a form of government in which one person possesses unlimited power. An autocrat is a person (such as a monarch) ruling with unlimited authority. The term autocrat is derived from the word autokratōr (αὐτοκράτωρ, lit. "self-ruler", or "one who rules by himself"). It is distinct from oligarchy ("rule by the few") and democracy ("rule by the people").
Today, the term autocrat is usually understood as synonymous with despot, tyrant and dictator, although each of these terms originally had a separate and distinct meaning.
Comparison with other forms of government
Autocracy and totalitarianism are orthogonal concepts: Autocracy stands for having unlimited power, while totalitarianism means regulating every aspect of public and private life. Also, totalitarianism does not necessarily mean one person having all power.
Autocracy differs from military dictatorship, as these often take the form of "collective presidencies" such as the South American juntas. However, an autocracy may be totalitarian or be a military dictatorship.
The term monarchy also differs in that it emphasizes the hereditary characteristic, though some Slavic monarchs, specifically Russian Emperors, included the title "autocrat" as part of their official styles. This usage originated in the Byzantine Empire, where the term autokratōr was traditionally employed in Greek to translate the Latin imperator, and was used along with Basileus to mean "emperor". This use remains current in the modern Greek language, where the term is used for any emperor (e.g. the Emperor of Japan), regardless of the actual power of the monarch. Historically, many monarchs ruled autocratically but eventually their power was diminished and dissolved with the introduction of constitutions giving the people the power to make decisions for themselves through elected bodies of government.
The autocrat needs some kind of power structure to rule. Very few rulers were in the position to rule with only their personal charisma and skills, however great these may be, without the help of others. Most historical autocrats depended on their nobles, the military, the priesthood or others, who could turn against the ruler and depose or murder them. As such, it can be difficult to draw a clear line between historical autocracies and oligarchies.
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