Berlin

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Berlin (English pronunciation: /bɜrˈlɪn/; German pronunciation: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn]  ( listen)) is the capital city of Germany, and is one of the sixteen states of Germany. It has a population of 3.4 million people,[1] and is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the eighth most populous urban area in the European Union.[3] Located in northeastern Germany, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Area, comprising 5 million people from over 190 nations.[4] Geographically embedded in the European Plains, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city's territory is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes.[5]

First documented in the 13th century, Berlin was successively the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945).[6] Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world.[7] After World War II, the city was divided; East Berlin became the capital of East Germany while West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989).[8] Following German reunification in 1990, the city regained its status as the capital of all Germany hosting 147 foreign embassies.[9][10]

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media, and science.[11][12][13][14] Its economy is primarily based on the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, media corporations, congress and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail transport,[15][16] and is one of the most visited tourist destinations in the EU.[17] Significant industries include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, optoelectronics, traffic engineering, and renewable energy.

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