The Bipolar spectrum (BS) refers to a category of mood disorders that feature abnormally elevated mood. These disorders range from Bipolar I disorder, featuring full-blown manic episodes, to cyclothymia, featuring less prominent hypomanic episodes, to "subsyndromal" conditions where only some of the criteria for mania or hypomania are met. These disorders typically also involve depressive symptoms or episodes that alternate with the elevated mood states, or with mixed episodes that feature symptoms of both. The concept of the Bipolar spectrum is similar to that of Emil Kraepelin's original concept of Manic depressive illness. Currently, Manic depressive illness is usually referred to as Bipolar disorder or Bipolar.
A simple nomenclature system was introduced in 1978 by Angst, J., et al., to classify more easily individuals' affectedness within the spectrum, following a clinical study by the Psychiatric University Clinic of Zürich.
Points on the spectrum using this nomenclature are denoted using the following codes:
Thus, mD represents a case with hypomania and major depression. A further distinction is sometimes made in the ordering of the letters, to represent the order of the episodes, where the patient's normal state is euthymic, interrupted by episodes of mania followed by depression (MD) or vice versa (DM).
Employing this schema, major depression would be denoted D. Unipolar mania (M) is, depending on the authority cited, either very rare, or nonexistent with such cases actually being Md.
Unipolar hypomania (m) without accompanying depression has been noted in the medical literature. There is speculation as to whether this condition may occur with greater frequency in the general, untreated population; successful social function of these potentially high-achieving individuals may lead to being labeled as normal, rather than as individuals suffering any substantial dysregulation.
dsrd (o, p, m, p, a, d, s), sysi/epon, spvo
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