An n-gonal bipyramid or dipyramid is a polyhedron formed by joining an n-gonal pyramid and its mirror image base-to-base.
The referenced n-gon in the name of the bipyramids is not an external face but an internal one, existing on the primary symmetry plane which connects the two pyramid halves.
The face-transitive bipyramids are the dual polyhedra of the uniform prisms and will generally have isosceles triangle faces.
A bipyramid can be projected on a sphere or globe as n equally spaced lines of longitude going from pole to pole, and bisected by a line around the equator.
Bipyramid faces, projected as spherical triangles, represent the fundamental domains in the dihedral symmetry Dnh.
The volume of a bipyramid is where B is the area of the base and h the height from the base to the apex. This works for any location of the apex, provided that h is measured as the perpendicular distance from the plane which contains the base.
The volume of a bipyramid whose base is a regular n-sided polygon with side length s and whose height is h is therefore:
Equilateral triangle bipyramids
Only three kinds of bipyramids can have all edges of the same length (which implies that all faces are equilateral triangles, and thus the bipyramid is a deltahedron): the triangular, tetragonal, and pentagonal bipyramids. The tetragonal bipyramid with identical edges, or regular octahedron, counts among the Platonic solids, while the triangular and pentagonal bipyramids with identical edges count among the Johnson solids (J12 and J13).
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