Boudica

related topics
{war, force, army}
{god, call, give}
{son, year, death}
{land, century, early}
{city, large, area}
{film, series, show}
{album, band, music}
{country, population, people}
{work, book, publish}
{specie, animal, plant}
{build, building, house}
{line, north, south}
{language, word, form}
{town, population, incorporate}
{county, mile, population}
{village, small, smallsup}

Boudica (pronounced /ˈbuːdɨkə/; also spelled Boudicca), formerly known as Boadicea /boʊdɨˈsiːə/ and known in Welsh as "Buddug" [ˈbɨ̞ðɨ̞ɡ][1] (d. AD 60 or 61) was queen of the Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.

Boudica's husband Prasutagus, ruler of the Iceni tribe who had ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman Emperor in his will. However, when he died, his will was ignored. The kingdom was annexed as if conquered, Boudica was flogged and her daughters raped, and Roman financiers called in their loans.

In AD 60 or 61, while the Roman governor, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, was leading a campaign on the island of Anglesey in north Wales, Boudica led the Iceni people, along with the Trinovantes and others, in revolt. They destroyed Camulodunum (modern Colchester), formerly the capital of the Trinovantes, but now a colonia (a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers) and the site of a temple to the former emperor Claudius, which was built and maintained at local expense. They also routed a Roman legion, the IX Hispana, sent to relieve the settlement.

On hearing the news of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (London), the twenty-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels' next target. Concluding he did not have the numbers to defend it, Suetonius evacuated and abandoned it. It was burnt to the ground, as was Verulamium (St Albans). An estimated 70,000–80,000 people were killed in the three cities (though the figures are suspect).[2] Suetonius, meanwhile, regrouped his forces in the West Midlands, and despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated the Britons in the Battle of Watling Street. The crisis caused the emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from the island, but Suetonius' eventual victory over Boudica secured Roman control of the province. Boudica then killed herself so she would not be captured, or fell ill and died; Tacitus and Dio differ.

The history of these events, as recorded by Tacitus[3] and Cassius Dio,[4] was rediscovered during the Renaissance and led to a resurgence of Boudica's legendary fame during the Victorian era, when Queen Victoria was portrayed as her 'namesake'. Boudica has since remained an important cultural symbol in the United Kingdom. The absence of native British literature during the early part of the first millennium means that Britain owes its knowledge of Boudica's rebellion to the writings of the Romans.

Contents

Full article ▸

related documents
Heretics of Dune
Umar
Thrace
Champion of the Universe
Mitanni
Bábism
Sennacherib
Magnus Maximus
Suebi
Chapterhouse Dune
Penda of Mercia
Quenta Silmarillion
Galatia
Pryderi
Medina
Battle of Salamis
Seppuku
Aurelian
Trajan
Hyksos
Heraclius
Ramesses III
Claude Auchinleck
Tomás de Zumalacárregui
Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Black Hole of Calcutta
Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland
John II Komnenos
Michiel de Ruyter
Túpac Amaru