Braille

related topics
{language, word, form}
{@card@, make, design}
{math, number, function}
{disease, patient, cell}
{album, band, music}
{day, year, event}
{style, bgcolor, rowspan}

The Braille system is a method that is widely used by blind people to read and write, and was the first digital form of writing.[1]

Braille was devised in 1821 by Louis Braille, a blind Frenchman. Each Braille character, or cell, is made up of six dot positions, arranged in a rectangle containing two columns of three dots each. A dot may be raised at any of the six positions to form sixty-four (26) possible subsets, including the arrangement in which no dots are raised. For reference purposes, a particular permutation may be described by naming the positions where dots are raised, the positions being universally numbered 1 to 3, from top to bottom, on the left, and 4 to 6, from top to bottom, on the right. For example, dots 1-3-4 (⠍) would describe a cell with three dots raised, at the top and bottom in the left column and on top of the right column, i.e., the letter m. The lines of horizontal Braille text are separated by a space, much like visible printed text, so that the dots of one line can be differentiated from the Braille text above and below. Punctuation is represented by its own unique set of characters.

Contents

Full article ▸

related documents
Number names
American English
Japanese numerals
Pittsburgh English
A and an
G
Schwa
Declension
Michif language
Austro-Bavarian
Norn language
General American
Grammar
International Sign
Full stop
Tāna
Yogh
Verner's law
Colon (punctuation)
Count noun
Mandarin Chinese
Expletive
Diphthong
Wade-Giles
Bantu languages
W
Transliteration
Bi-directional text
Cedilla
Received Pronunciation