Brighella (French: Brighelle) is a comic, masked character from the Commedia dell'arte. His early costume consisted of loosely-fitting, white smock and pants with green trim and was often equipped with a battachio or slapstick, or else with a wooden sword. Later he took to wearing a sort of livery with a matching cape. He wore a greenish half-mask (traditionally olive-green) displaying a look of preternatural lust and greed. He evolved out of the general Zanni, as evidenced by his costume, and came into his own around the start of the 16th century.
He is loosely categorized as one of the zanni or servant characters though he often was portrayed as a member of the middle class such as a tavern owner: his character could be adapted to whatever the needs to the scenario might be, just as Brighella himself is adaptable to any circumstance. He is essentially Arlecchino's smarter and much more vindictive older brother. As in a stereotype of those who have risen from poverty, he is often most cruel to those beneath him on the social ladder; he even goes so far as to kill on occasion. In later versions of his character these violent and malicious traits were lessened substantially. Pierre Louis Duchartre, in his The Italian Comedy theorizes that in France, the gentilified Brighella eventually culminated in the character of Figaro, known from the plays and operas.
He's a masterful liar, and can make up a spur-of-the moment lie for any situation. He is an inveterate schemer, and he is good at what he does. If his plans failed, it was almost always out of luck on behalf of the other characters. When he's a servant, he will either serve his master devotedly or look for every opportunity to ruin and take advantage of him as he happens to see fit -- whatever will gain the greatest advantage for himself and himself alone. He is fond of money, but spends it rapidly, and tends to be especially fond of the drink. To quote Duchartre again: "Brighella believes in no one but the hangman, he respects nothing and loves nothing but his own pleasure." In fact, he has few good qualities save for his ability to entertain the audience.
His character is usually from uptown Milano or Bergamo, and in the original Italian would often speak with the local accent. He could be very witty and fond of wordplay. He is also an accomplished singer, dancer and musician, and sometimes would play the guitar on stage.
His name comes from a word which can mean "bother" or "contention" in Italian (Florio's 1611 Italian-English Dictionary defines Briga as meaning "a brable, a braule, a contention".) His name in English would be something like "Fighty" or "Brawly." It is notable that the word attaccabrighe ("hellraiser") utilizes the same element as his name.
A list of variations on the character, according to Duchartre, are:
Beltrame: from the late 17th century, a "wilfully blind husband and rascal as crafty as Brighella." He was Milanese and spoke that dialect. As part of his costume he apparently wore a distinctive large tunic.
Scapin, or Scapino: A much more nervous and cowardly version of Brighella. See his entry.
Truccagnino: See Fenocchio.
Mezzetino: A gentler version of Brighella, fond of the ladies even if they weren't fond of him. See his entry.
Fenocchio: More prone to playing pranks than committing serious intrigues, he otherwise shared Brighella's fondness for malice.
Flautino: A musical Brighella, often singing a cappella. It's said the actor Giovanni Gherard, in this role, was able to perform the part of an entire orchestra with his voice alone.
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