Buran program

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The Buran (Russian: Бура́н, IPA: [bʊˈran], Snowstorm or Blizzard) program was a Soviet and later Russian plan for a reusable spacecraft, that began in 1974 at TsAGI and formally suspended in 1993.[1] It was a response to the United States Space Shuttle program.[2] The project was the largest and the most expensive in the history of Soviet space exploration.[1] Development work included sending the BOR-5 on multiple sub-orbital test flights, and atmospheric flights of the OK-GLI. Buran completed one unmanned orbital spaceflight in 1988 before its cancellation in 1993.[1]

Although the Buran spacecraft was similar in appearance to the NASA Space Shuttle, and could similarly function as a re-entry spaceplane, the main engines during launch were on the Energia rocket and not taken into orbit on the spacecraft. The Buran program matched an expendable rocket to a reusable spaceplane.

The Buran orbiter which flew the test flight was crushed in the Buran hangar collapse on May 12, 2002 in Russia. The OK-GLI resides in a museum.

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