The province of Burgos is a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is bordered by the provinces of Palencia, Cantabria, Vizcaya, Álava, La Rioja, Soria, Segovia, and Valladolid. Its capital is the city of Burgos. Since 1964, archeologists have been working at numerous areas of the Archeological Site of Atapuerca, where they have found ancient hominid and human remains, the former dating to more than one million years ago, with artifacts from the Paleolithic and Bronze ages of man. The site has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The province has an area of 14,300 km² and a population of 352,273 (2002), of whom nearly half live in the capital. The only large towns apart from Burgos are Miranda de Ebro and Aranda de Duero. Many of the province's 371 municipalities have fewer than 100 inhabitants. See List of municipalities in Burgos.
The most important rivers in the province are the Ebro and the Duero. The river Duero is in the south of the province and leads to the Atlantic Ocean at Porto, Portugal. Planted near it is a notable vineyard, Ribera de Duero. The north and south-east of the province are mountainous. The Ebro flows to the Mediterranean Sea.
In the Buerba Pass area, archeologists have found evidence of occupation by hominids and humans for more than one million years. Discoveries have included the earliest hominid skull in Europe.
The Celtiberian region that became Burgos was inhabited by the Morgobos, Turmodigos, Berones and perhaps also the Pelendones, the last inhabitants of the northern part of the Celtiberian region. According to the Greek historian Ptolemy, the principal cities included: Brabum, Sisara, Deobrigula, Ambisna Segiasamon and Verovesca (briviesca). Under Roman colonization, it was part of Hispania Citerior ("Hither Spain") and then Hispania Tarraconensis.
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