Caledonia County, Vermont

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Caledonia County is a county located in the U.S. state of Vermont. As of 2000, the population was 29,702. Its shire town is St. Johnsbury[1].

The county was given the Latin name for Scotland, in honor of the many settlers who claimed ancestry there.[2]



According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 658 square miles (1,704.2 km2), of which 651 square miles (1,686.1 km2) is land and 7 square miles (18.1 km2) (1.06%) is water.

Caledonia is the most populated county of the three in the Northeast Kingdom. However, it is the smallest in area of the three.

The county has a number of brooks and rivers. The Connecticut River runs along the southeast and forms one of the eastern boundaries of the county. The northern towns are drained by the head branches of the Passumpsic River, which is the largest in the county. It flows south and empties into the Connecticut River in Barnet. There are the Wells, Stevens and Joe's Rivers in the south. In the west the head waters of the Winooski and Lamoille Rivers. There are about twenty lakes and ponds in the county. The largest are Harvey's Lake, in Barnet; Wells River and Lund's Ponds, in Groton; Cole's Pond, in Walden; Clark's and Center Ponds, in Newark; and Stile's Pond, in Waterford. There are falls at different places on the Connecticut, Passumpsic, Wells and Joe's Rivers. Stevens River, near its mouth, falls 80 feet (24 m) in a distance of 20 rods (330 ft; 100 m). Some of the water power has been harnessed for electricity.[3]

There are sulphur springs in Wheelock, Haynesville, in Hardwick; and in St. Johnsbury, near the Moose River.[3]


Underlying the county is mostly in calciferous mica schist district. There is argillaceous slate running through Waterford and Kirby, which narrows in Burke.[3]

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