Carrier sense multiple access

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Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) is a probabilistic Media Access Control (MAC) protocol in which a node verifies the absence of other traffic before transmitting on a shared transmission medium, such as an electrical bus, or a band of the electromagnetic spectrum.

"Carrier Sense" describes the fact that a transmitter uses feedback from a receiver that detects a carrier wave before trying to send. That is, it tries to detect the presence of an encoded signal from another station before attempting to transmit. If a carrier is sensed, the station waits for the transmission in progress to finish before initiating its own transmission.

"Multiple Access" describes the fact that multiple stations send and receive on the medium. Transmissions by one node are generally received by all other stations using the medium.


Types of CSMA

  • 1-persistent CSMA

When the sender (station) is ready to transmit data, it checks if the physical medium is busy. If so, it senses the medium continually until it becomes idle, and then it transmits a piece of data (a frame). In case of a collision, the sender waits for a random period of time and attempts to transmit again.

  • p-persistent CSMA

When the sender is ready to send data, it checks continually if the medium is busy. If the medium becomes idle, the sender transmits a frame with a probability p. If the station chooses not to transmit (the probability of this event is 1-p), the sender waits until the next available time slot and transmits again with the same probability p. This process repeats until the frame is sent or some other sender stops transmitting. In the latter case the sender monitors the channel, and when idle, transmits with a probability p, and so on.

  • o-persistent CSMA

Each station is assigned a transmission order by a supervisor station. When medium goes idle, stations wait for their time slot in accordance with their assigned transmission order. The station assigned to transmit first transmits immediately. The station assigned to transmit second waits one time slot (but by that time the first station has already started transmitting). Stations monitor the medium for transmissions from other stations and update their assigned order with each detected transmission (i.e. they move one position closer to the front of the queue).[1]

Protocol modifications

Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) is a modification of CSMA. CSMA/CD is used to improve CSMA performance by terminating transmission as soon as a collision is detected, and reducing the probability of a second collision on retry.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is a modification of CSMA. Collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of CSMA by attempting to be less "greedy" on the channel. If the channel is sensed busy before transmission then the transmission is deferred for a "random" interval. This reduces the probability of collisions on the channel.

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