Catatonia

related topics
{disease, patient, cell}
{math, energy, light}
{rate, high, increase}

Catatonia is a syndrome of psychological and motorological disturbances. It was first described in 1874: Die Katatonie oder das Spannungirresein[1] (Catatonia or Tension Insanity). In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV) it is not recognized as a separate disorder, but is associated with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia (catatonic type), bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and other mental disorders, as well as drug abuse or overdose (or both). It may also be seen in many medical disorders including infections (such as encephalitis), autoimmune disorders, focal neurologic lesions (including strokes), metabolic disturbances and abrupt or overly rapid benzodiazepine withdrawal.[2][3][4] It can be an adverse reaction to prescribed medication. It bears similarity to conditions such as encephalitis lethargica and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. There are a variety of treatments available; benzodiazepines are a first-line treatment strategy. Electro-convulsive therapy is also sometimes used. There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of NMDA antagonists for benzodiazepine resistant catatonia.[5] Antipsychotics are sometimes employed but require caution as they can worsen symptoms and have serious adverse effects.[6]

Contents

Clinical features

Patients with catatonia may experience an extreme loss of motor skills or even constant hyperactive motor activity. Catatonic patients will sometimes hold rigid poses for hours and will ignore any external stimuli. Patients with catatonic excitement can suffer from exhaustion if not treated. Patients may also show stereotyped, repetitive movements. They may show specific types of movement such as waxy flexibility, in which they maintain positions after being placed in them by someone else, or gegenhalten (lit. "counterhold"), in which they resist movement in proportion to the force applied by the examiner. They may repeat meaningless phrases or speak only to repeat what the examiner says.

Full article ▸

related documents
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Goitre
Tumor suppressor gene
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Cerebral arteriovenous malformation
Nerve
Dendritic cell
Gynaecology
Tylenol
Peritoneum
Q fever
Ciclosporin
Leprosy
Seasonal affective disorder
Obstetrics
Laudanum
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
Artificial respiration
Circulatory system
Exocrine gland
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Cerebral cortex
Rickets
Breast reconstruction
Gastrointestinal tract
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Spasticity
Endorphin
Cardiomyopathy
Vulvodynia