Centriole

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A centriole is a barrel-shaped cell structure[1] found in most animal eukaryotic cells, though absent in higher plants and most fungi.[2] The walls of each centriole are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules (protein of the cytoskeleton). Deviations from this structure include Drosophila melanogaster embryos, with nine doublets, and Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cells and early embryos, with nine singlets.[3][4] An associated pair of centrioles, arranged perpendicularly and surrounded by an amorphous mass of dense material (the pericentriolar material) constitutes the compound structure known as the centrosome.[1]

Contents

Cell division

Centrioles are involved in the organization of the mitotic spindle and in the completion of cytokinesis.[5] Centrioles were previously thought to be required for the formation of a mitotic spindle in animal cells. However, more recent experiments have demonstrated that cells whose centrioles have been removed via laser ablation can still progress through the G1 stage of interphase before centrioles can be synthesized later in a de novo fashion.[6] Additionally, mutant flies lacking centrioles can develop almost normally, although the adult flies lack flagella and cilia, a lack that underscores the requirement of centrioles for the formation of these organelles (see below).[7]

Cellular organization

Centrioles are a very important part of centrosomes, which are involved in organizing microtubules in the cytoplasm.[8][9] The position of the centriole determines the position of the nucleus and plays a crucial role in the spatial arrangement of the cell.

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