Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia

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Charles Emmanuel III (27 April 1701 – 20 February 1773) was the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia from 1730 until his death.



He was born a Prince of Savoy in Turin to Victor Amadeus II of Savoy and his first wife the French Anne Marie d'Orléans. His maternal grandparents were Prince Philippe of France and his first wife Princess Henrietta Anne, the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France. Charles Emmanuel was the oldest surviving brother of Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy - the mother of Louis XV of France; he was also the brother of Maria Luisa of Savoy, Queen of Spain as wife of his maternal second cousin Philip V of Spain. From his birth he was styled as the Duke of Aosta.

At the time of his birth, Charles Emmanuel was not the heir to the Duchy of Savoy; his older brother Prince Victor Amadeus John Philip of Savoy was the Prince of Piedmont and thus Heir apparent. Charles Emmanuel was the second of three males that would be born to his parents. His older brother, the Prince of Piedmont died in 1715 and then Charles Emmanuel became Heir apparent.

As a result of his aid in the War of the Spanish Succession, Victor Amadeus II was made King of Sicily in 1713 under the Treaty of Utrecht which ended the war. Victor Amadeus was forced to exchange Sicily for the less important kingdom of Sardinia in 1720 after objections from an alliance of four nations, including several of his former allies. Yet he retained his new title of King. The rule was that there were no kings within the Empire, but if a ruler subject to the Emperor also possessed a large territory outside the Empire he might claim this title as the Elector of Brandenburg had done, styling himself King in Prussia based on his sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia.

However, Victor Amadeus in his late year was dominated by shyness and sadness, probably under the effect of some mental illness. In the end, on 3 September 1730, he abdicated, leaving the throne to Charles (nicknamed "Carlino" for his gracile and unpleasant building). He was not loved by Victor Amadeus, and consequently received an incomplete education. He however acquired noteworthy knowledge in the military field along his father.

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