Chechnya

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The Chechen Republic (pronounced /ˈtʃɛtʃɨn/; Russian: Чече́нская Респу́блика, Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (/ˈtʃɛtʃniə/; Russian: Чечня́; Chechen: Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechenistan, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. It is located in the southeastern part of Europe, in the Northern Caucasus mountains, in the North Caucasian Federal District. As of 1 January 2010, the population was 1,267,740 (according to Russian State statistics).

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into two: the Republic of Ingushetia and Republic of Chechnya. The latter proclaimed the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, which sought independence. Following the First Chechen War with Russia, Chechnya gained de facto independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Russian federal control was restored during the Second Chechen War. Since then there has been a systematic reconstruction and rebuilding process, though sporadic fighting continues in the mountains and southern regions of the republic.

See "Chechen people" for etymology of the name. In 2006 the former president, Alu Alkhanov, proposed changing the official name of the republic to Noxçiyn (or Nokhchiin) which is a transcription of the name in the Chechen language.[9]

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