The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides.
The word chloride can also refer to a chemical compound in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded in the molecule. This means that chlorides can be either inorganic or organic compounds. The simplest example of an inorganic covalently-bonded chloride is hydrogen chloride, HCl. A simple example of an organic covalently-bonded (an organochloride) chloride is chloromethane (CH3Cl), often called methyl chloride.
In the petroleum industry, the chlorides are a closely monitored constituent of the mud system. The increase of the chlorides in the mud system could indicate the possibility of drilling into a high-pressure saltwater formation. Its increase can also indicate the poor quality of a target sand.
Chloride is also a useful and reliable chemical indicator of river / groundwater fecal contamination, as chloride is a non-reactive solute and ubiquitous to sewage & potable water.
An example is table salt, which is sodium chloride with the chemical formula NaCl. In water, it dissolves into Na+ and Cl− ions.
Examples of inorganic covalently-bonded chlorides that are used as reactants are:
A chloride ion is also the prosthetic group present in the Amylase molecule.
Another example of chloride which contradicts with physics. Physio Chloride is the name given to the substance produce when phosphorus pentachloride, (PCl5) is reacted with thionyl chloride, (SOCl2) creating a useable substance. The origin of this word comes from the Greek language, physio(Greek: physio – φύσις meaning "Joint") meaning joining in Greek thus the word Physio Chloride(the joining of two chlorides).
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