Cholesterol

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148–150 °C[1]

360 °C (decomposes)

Cholesterol is a waxy steroid metabolite found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all animals.[2] It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, where it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition, cholesterol is an important component for the manufacture of bile acids, steroid hormones, and fat-soluble vitamins including Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by animals, but small quantities are synthesized in other eukaryotes, such as plants and fungi. It is almost completely absent among prokaryotes, which include bacteria.[3] Although cholesterol is an important and necessary molecule for animals, a high level of serum cholesterol is an indicator for diseases such as heart disease.[4]

The name cholesterol originates from the Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), and the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, as François Poulletier de la Salle first identified cholesterol in solid form in gallstones, in 1769. However, it was only in 1815 that chemist Eugène Chevreul named the compound "cholesterine".[5]

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