Classless Inter-Domain Routing

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Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is a methodology of allocating IP addresses and routing Internet Protocol packets. It was introduced in 1993 to replace the prior addressing architecture of classful network design in the Internet with the goal to slow the growth of routing tables on routers across the Internet, and to help slow the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 addresses.[1][2]

IP addresses are described as consisting of two groups of bits in the address: the most significant part is the network address which identifies a whole network or subnet and the least significant portion is the host identifier, which specifies a particular host interface on that network. This division is used as the basis of traffic routing between IP networks and for address allocation policies. Classful network design for IPv4 sized the network address as one or more 8-bit groups, resulting in the blocks of Class A, B, or C addresses. Classless Inter-Domain Routing allocates address space to Internet service providers and end users on any address bit boundary, instead of on 8-bit segments. In IPv6, however, the interface identifier has a fixed size of 64 bits by convention, and smaller subnets are never allocated to end users.

CIDR notation is a syntax of specifying IP addresses and their associated routing prefix. It appends to the address a slash character and the decimal number of leading bits of the routing prefix, e.g., 192.168.0.0/16 for IPv4, and 2001:db8::/32 for IPv6.

Contents

Background

During the first decade of the modern Internet after the invention of the Domain Name System (DNS) it became apparent that the devised system based on the classful network scheme of allocating the IP address space and the routing of IP packets was not scalable.[3]

To alleviate the shortcomings, the Internet Engineering Task Force published in 1993 a new set of standards, RFC 1518 and RFC 1519, to define a new concept of allocation of IP address blocks and new methods of routing IPv4 packets. A new version of the specification was published as RFC 4632 in 2006.[4]

An IP address is interpreted as composed of two parts: a network-identifying prefix followed by a host identifier within that network. In the previous classfull network architecture, IP address allocations were based on dividing the 32 bits into 8-bit segments called octets. An address was considered to be the combination of an 8, 16, or 24-bit network prefix along with a 24, 16, or 8-bit individual or "node" address. Thus, the smallest allocation and routing block contained only 256 addresses—too small for most enterprises, and the next larger block contained 65,536 addresses—too large to be used efficiently by even large organizations. This led to inefficiencies in address use as well as routing because the large number of allocated small (class-C) networks with individual route announcements, being geographically dispersed with little opportunity for route aggregation, created heavy demand on routing equipment.

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