Cleveland, England

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Coordinates: 54°31′30″N 1°11′20″W / 54.525°N 1.189°W / 54.525; -1.189

Cleveland (pronounced /ˈkliːvlənd/) is an area in the north of England. Its name means literally "cliff-land", referring to its hilly southern areas, which rise to nearly 1,500 ft (460 m). Historically Cleveland, a part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, was located entirely to the south of the River Tees and its largest town was Guisborough.

A non-metropolitan county of Cleveland was created in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, named after the historic region but not covering it all, and also including land north of the River Tees in County Durham. It was based around the Teesside urban area and included Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Hartlepool and Redcar. At this time the use of the name ‘Cleveland’ or ‘Teesside’ to refer to the area was virtually interchangeable.

The county was abolished in 1996[3] with its boroughs becoming unitary authorities and the Tees re-established as the border between North Yorkshire and County Durham for ceremonial purposes only.

Contents

Heritage

Cleveland has a significant industrial heritage arising from its central role in the 19th century iron boom that led to Middlesbrough growing from a hamlet into a major industrial town in only a few decades. The Cleveland Hills, in the southern part of the district, were key suppliers of the ironstone that was essential to the running of the blast furnaces alongside the River Tees. Middlesbrough's Teesport is still one of the United Kingdom's main ports and the area between Middlesbrough and Redcar is still populated by many heavy industrial plants, although this is much reduced from its 20th century peak.

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