Client-side scripting generally refers to the class of computer programs on the web that are executed client-side, by the user's web browser, instead of server-side (on the web server). This type of computer programming is an important part of the Dynamic HTML (DHTML) concept, enabling web pages to be scripted; that is, to have different and changing content depending on user input, environmental conditions (such as the time of day), or other variables.
Client-side scripts are often embedded within an HTML document (hence known as an "embedded script"), but they may also be contained in a separate file, which is referenced by the document (or documents) that use it (hence known as an "external script"). Upon request, the necessary files are sent to the user's computer by the web server (or servers) on which they reside. The user's web browser executes the script, then displays the document, including any visible output from the script. Client-side scripts may also contain instructions for the browser to follow in response to certain user actions, (e.g., clicking a button). Often, these instructions can be followed without further communication with the server.
By viewing the file that contains the script, users may be able to see its source code. Many web authors learn how to write client-side scripts partly by examining the source code for other authors' scripts.
In contrast, server-side scripts, written in languages such as Perl, PHP, and server-side VBScript, are executed by the web server when the user requests a document. They produce output in a format understandable by web browsers (usually HTML), which is then sent to the user's computer. The user cannot see the script's source code (unless the author publishes the code separately), and may not even be aware that a script was executed. Documents produced by server-side scripts may, in turn, contain client-side scripts.
Client-side scripts have greater access to the information and functions available on the user's browser, whereas server-side scripts have greater access to the information and functions available on the server. Server-side scripts require that their language's interpreter be installed on the server, and produce the same output regardless of the client's browser, operating system, or other system details. Client-side scripts do not require additional software on the server (making them popular with authors who lack administrative access to their servers); however, they do require that the user's web browser understands the scripting language in which they are written. It is therefore impractical for an author to write scripts in a language that is not supported by popular web browsers.
Due to security restrictions, client-side scripts may not be allowed to access the user's computer beyond the web browser application. Techniques like ActiveX controls can be used to sidestep this restriction.
Unfortunately, even languages that are supported by a wide variety of browsers may not be implemented in precisely the same way across all browsers and operating systems. Authors are well-advised to review the behavior of their client-side scripts on a variety of platforms before they put them into use.
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