Coat of arms of Canada

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The Arms of Canada (also known as the Royal Coat of Arms of Canada[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] or formally as the Arms of His/Her Majesty in Right of Canada)[8] is, since 1921, the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch, and thus also of Canada. It is closely modelled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British.

The maple leaves in the shield, blazoned "proper", were originally drawn vert (green) but were redrawn gules (red) in 1957. A circlet of the Order of Canada was added to the arms for limited use in 1987. The shield design forms the Royal Standard of Canada, and the shield is found on the Canadian Red Ensign. The Flag of the Governor General of Canada, which formerly used the shield over the Union Flag, now uses the crest of the arms on a blue field.

Contents

History

Prior to Confederation in 1867, the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom served in Canada as the symbol of royal authority.[9] Arms had not been granted to any of the colonies in British North America, apart from the 17th century grants to Nova Scotia[10] and Newfoundland.[11][12] The year after Confederation, arms were granted by Royal Warrant on 6 May to Ontario,[13] Quebec,[14] Nova Scotia[15] (the fact Nova Scotia had been granted arms had been forgotten, and it took until 1929 for the historic arms granted in the 17th Century to be reinstated)[10] and New Brunswick.[16] The warrant did not issue arms to the dominion of Canada, though it made provision for the four provincial arms to be quartered for the purpose of a Great Seal for Canada (though this was never done). A shield of arms first quartered and then, over time, as more provinces and territories joined Canada, marshalled with the arms of the new members of Confederation emerged through popular and even Canadian governmental usage. This eventually resulted in a shield with nine quarterings, an arrangement that had never been approved by the monarch.[9]

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