Demiurge

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Plato has the speaker Timaeus refer to the Demiurge frequently in the Socratic dialogue Timaeus, circa 360 BC. Plato's Timaeus is a philosophical reconciliation of Hesiod's cosmology in his Theogony, syncretically reconciling Hesiod to Homer.[1][2][3] The title character refers to the Demiurge as the entity who “fashioned and shaped” the material world. Timaeus describes the Demiurge as unreservedly benevolent, and hence desirous of a world as good as possible. The world remains allegedly imperfect, however, because the Demiurge created the world out of a chaotic, indeterminate non-being.

Neo-Pythagorean and Middle Platonism

In Numenius's Neo-Pythagorean and Middle Platonist cosmogony the Demiurge is second God as the nous or thought of intelligibles and sensibles.[4]

NeoPlatonism

Plotinus and the later Platonists worked to clarify the Demiurge. To Plotinus, the second emanation represents an uncreated second cause (see Pythagoras' Dyad). Plotinus sought to reconcile Aristotle's energeia with Plato's Demiurge.[5] Which as Demiurge and mind (nous) is a critical component in the ontological construct of human consciousness used to explain and clarify substance theory within Platonic realism also called idealism. Plotinus did this in order to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy with Platonian philosophy.[6] Plotnius identified the demiurge or nous within the pantheon of the Greek Gods as Zeus (Dyeus).[7]

Henology

The first and highest aspect of God is described by Plato as the One, the source, or the Monad. This is the Good above the Demiurge, and manifests through the work of the Demiurge. The Monad emanated the demiurge or Nous (consciousness) from its "indeterminate" vitality due to the monad being so abundant that it overflowed back onto itself, causing self reflection.[8] This self reflection of the indeterminate vitality was referred to by Plotinus as the Demiurge, or creator. The second principle is organization in its reflection of the nonsentient force or dynamis, also called the one or the Monad. The dyad is energeia emanated by the one that is then the work, process or activity called nous, Demiurge, mind, consciousness that organizes the indeterminate vitality into the experience called the material world, universe, cosmos. Plotinus also elucidates the equation of matter with nothing or non-being in his Enneads[9] which more correctly is to express the concept of idealism or that there is not anything or anywhere outside of the "mind" or nous (c.f. pantheism).

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