Demographics of Equatorial Guinea

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Equatorial Guinea, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The majority of the people of Equatorial Guinea are of Bantu origin. The largest tribe, the Fang, is indigenous to the mainland, but substantial migration to Bioko Island has resulted in Fang dominance over the earlier Bantu inhabitants. The Fang constitute eighty percent of the population and are themselves divided into sixty seven clans. Those in the northern part of Rio Muni speak Fang-Ntumu, while those in the south speak Fang-Okah; the two dialects are mutually unintelligible. The Bubi, who constitute fifteen percent of the population, are indigenous to Bioko Island.

In addition, there are coastal tribes, collectively referred to as Ndowe or "Playeros" (Beach People in Spanish): Combes, Bujebas, Balengues, and Bengas on the mainland and small islands, and a Fernandino community of Krio descended people, on Bioko. Together, these groups compose five percent of the population. Some Europeans (largely of Spanish or Portuguese descent) – among them mixed with African ethnicity – also live in the nation. Most Spaniards left after independence.There is a growing number of foreigners from neighboring Cameroon, Nigeria, and Gabon. Equatorial Guinea received Asians and black Africans from other countries as workers on cocoa and coffee plantations. Other black Africans came from Liberia, Angola, and Mozambique, and Asians are mostly Chinese with small numbers of Indians. Equatorial Guinea also allowed many fortune-seeking European settlers of other nationalities, including British, French and Germans. After independence, thousands of Equatorial Guineans went to Spain. Another 100,000 Equatorial Guineans went to Cameroon, Gabon, and Nigeria because of dictatorship of Francisco Macías Nguema. Some of its communities also live in Brazil, some Spanish-speaking Latin American nations, United States, Portugal, and France.

Spanish, French, Portuguese are the official languages and spoken as second languages, most spoken is Spanish—89% of the people (52% are first-language speakers, mostly pure-blooded Spanish and mulattoes, 37% second-language speakers, mostly Bantus). Most also still speak Bantu languages, which are also spoken by pure-blooded Spaniards as second languages. Annobonese speak a Portuguese Creole, named Annobonese, as their first language. Asians and other Europeans speak their own languages. Foreign Africans speak their native languages and their nation’s official languages— English for Nigerians, Cameroonians, and Liberians; French for Cameroonians and Gabonese; and Portuguese for Angolans and Mozambicans. The latter was made an official language since July 13, 2007. Most educated persons speak English, the most important foreign language to learn. The Roman Catholic Church has greatly influenced both religion and education.

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