Demographics of Israel

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3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

There were a total of 19,269 immigrants in 2006: 7,472 from the Former Soviet Union, 3,595 from Ethiopia, 2,411 from France, 2,159 from the United States, 594 from the United Kingdom, 304 from India, 293 from Argentina, 232 from Brazil, 228 from Canada, 142 from Colombia, 134 from Venezuela, 114 from South Africa, 112 from Germany, 91 from Belgium, 91 from Central America, 85 from Switzerland, 73 from Uruguay, 72 from Mexico, 66 from Oceania, 63 from Hungary, 61 from Chile, 50 from Romania and 50 from the Netherlands.


For many years definitive data on Israeli emigration was unavailable.[24] In The Israeli Diaspora sociologist Stephen J. Gold maintains that calculation of Jewish emigration has been a contentious issue, explaining, "Since Zionism, the philosophy that underlies the existence of the Jewish state, calls for return home of the world's Jews, the opposite movement - Israelis leaving the Jewish state to reside elsewhere - clearly presents an ideological and demographic problem."[25]

In the past several decades, emigration (yerida) has seen a considerable increase. From 1990 to 2005, 230,000 Israelis left the country; a large proportion of these departures included people who initially immigrated to Israel and then reversed their course (48% of all post-1990 departures and even 60% of 2003 and 2004 departures were former immigrants to Israel). 8% of Jewish immigrants in the post-1990 period left Israel, while 15% of non-Jewish immigrants did. In 2005 alone, 21,500 Israelis left the country and had not yet returned at the end of 2006; among them 73% were Jews, 5% Arabs, and 22% "Others" (mostly non-Jewish immigrants, with Jewish ancestry, from USSR). At the same time, 10,500 Israelis came back to Israel after over one year abroad; 84% were Jews, 9% Others, and 7% Arabs.[26]

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, as of 2005, 650,000 Israelis had left the country for over one year and not returned. Of them, 530,000 are still alive today. This number does not include the children born overseas. It should also be noted that Israeli law grants citizenship only to the first generation of children born to Israeli emigrants.

Infant mortality rate

  • Total: 6.89 deaths/1,000 live births
  • Male: 7.61 deaths/1,000 live births
  • Female: 6.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (2006)

  • Total population: 79.46 years
  • Male: 77.33 years
  • Female: 81.7 years

Total fertility rate (2009)

In Israel, the total fertility rate (TFR) is 2.96 children born per woman.

TFR was 2.90 for Jews (2.88 in 2008, 2.69 in 2005, 2.67 in 2000), 3.73 for Muslims (3.84 in 2008, 4.03 in 2005, 4.57 in 2000), 2.49 for Druze (2.49 in 2008, 2.59 in 2005, 2.87 in 2000), 2.15 for Christians (2.11 in 2008, 2.15 in 2005, 2.35 in 2000) and 1.56 for Others (1.57 in 2008, 1.49 in 2005, 1.55 in 2000).

TFR is very high among Haredi Jews. For Ashkenazi Haredim, the TFR rose to 8.51 in 1996 from 6.91 in 1980. The figure for 2008 is estimated to be even higher. TFR for Sephardi/Mizrachi Haredim rose from 4.57 in 1980 to 6.57 in 1996.[27]

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