Demographics of Turkmenistan

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The Demographics of Turkmenistan is about the demographic features of the population of Turkmenistan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population. The ethnic majority in Turkmenistan call themselves Turkmen.


Demographic trends

The population of Turkmenistan increased from 1.5 million in the 1959 census to 4.5 million in the 1995 census.[1] The population continued growing to over 5 million in 2001-2006.[2]

Ethnic groups

The table shows the ethnic composition of Turkmenistan's population (in percent) between 1959 and 1999.[1] There has been a sharp decline in the European ethnic groups (Russians and Ukrainians) and also Tatars and Kazakhs since independence (as captured in the 1979 and 1995 censuses). Uzbeks are now the second largest ethnic group in Turkmenistan, with Russians relegated to the third place. The CIA World Factbook gives the ethnic composition of Turkmenistan as 85% Turkmen, 5% Uzbek, 4% Russian, and 6% other (2003 estimates).[3] According to data announced in Ashgabat in February 2001, 91% of the population are Turkmen, 3% are Uzbeks, and 2% are Russians. Between 1989 and 2001 the number of Turkmen in Turkmenistan doubled (from 2.5 to 4.9 million), while the number of Russians dropped by two-thirds (from 334,000 to slightly over 100,000).[4]

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