Donald III of Scotland

related topics
{son, year, death}
{war, force, army}
{language, word, form}
{law, state, case}
{album, band, music}

Domnall mac Donnchada (Modern Gaelic: Dòmhnall mac Dhonnchaidh),[1] anglicised as Donald III, and nicknamed Domnall Bán, "Donald the Fair" (anglicised as Donald Bane/Bain or Donalbane/Donalbain), (died 1099) was King of Scots from 1093–1094 and 1094–1097.[2] He was the second known son of Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin).

Donald's activities during the reign of his elder brother Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) are not recorded. It appears that he was not his brother's chosen heir, contrary to earlier custom, but that Malcolm had designated Edward, his eldest son by Margaret of Wessex, as the king to come.[3] If this was Malcolm's intent, his death and that of Edward on campaign in Northumbria in November 1093 (see Battle of Alnwick (1093)) confounded his plans. These deaths were followed very soon afterwards by that of Queen Margaret.

John of Fordun reports that Donald invaded the kingdom after Margaret's death "at the head of a numerous band", and laid siege to Edinburgh with Malcolm's sons by Margaret inside. Fordun has Edgar Ætheling, concerned for his nephews' well-being, take the sons of Malcolm and Margaret to England.[4] Andrew of Wyntoun's much simpler account has Donald become king and banish his nephews. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records only that Donald was chosen as king and expelled the English from the court.[5]

In May 1094, Donald's nephew Duncan (Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim), son of Malcolm and his first wife Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, invaded at the head of an army of Anglo-Normans and Northumbrians, aided by his half-brother Edmund and his father-in-law Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria. This invasion succeeded in placing Duncan on the throne as Duncan II, but an uprising defeated his allies and he was compelled to send away his foreign troops. Duncan was then killed on 12 November 1094 by Máel Petair, Mormaer of Mearns.[6] The Annals of Ulster say that Duncan was killed on the orders of Donald (incorrectly called his brother) and Edmund.[7]

Donald resumed power, probably with Edmund as his designated heir.[8] Donald was an elderly man by the standards of the day, approaching sixty years old, and without any known sons, so that an heir was clearly required. William of Malmesbury says that Edmund bargained "for half the kingdom", suggesting that Donald granted his nephew an appanage to rule.[9]

Edgar, eldest surviving son of Malcolm and Margaret, obtained the support of William Rufus, although other matters delayed Edgar's return on the coat-tails of an English army led by his uncle Edgar Ætheling.[10] Donald's fate is not entirely clear. William of Malmesbury tells us that he was "slain by the craftiness of David [the later David I] ... and by the strength of William [Rufus]".[11] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says of Donald that he was expelled,[11] while the Annals of Tigernach have him blinded by his brother.[12] John of Fordun, following the king-lists, writes that Donald was "blinded, and doomed to eternal imprisonment" by Edgar. The place of his imprisonment was said to be Rescobie, by Forfar, in Angus.[13] The sources differ as to whether Donald was first buried at Dunfermline Abbey or Dunkeld Cathedral, but agree that his remains were later moved to Iona.

Full article ▸

related documents
Miguel Hernández
Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall
Emma of Normandy
Nancy Mitford
Earl of Chesterfield
Margaret of York
Owen Tudor
Earl of Albemarle
Ferdinand I of Romania
Vittoria Colonna
David Rizzio
Magnus III of Sweden
Empress Suiko
Maria Theresa of Austria
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Gustaf V of Sweden
Royal and noble styles
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
Emma
Frederick I of Sweden
Arria
Cato the Elder
John III of Sweden
Emperor Tenji
Torquato Tasso
Anna of Russia
Pepin of Landen
Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook
Arbella Stuart
Albert II of Germany