Durrani Empire

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The Durrani Empire (Pashto: د درانیانو واکمني, also referred to as the Afghan Empire[1][2]) was a monarchy centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the modern state of Pakistan as well as the Punjab region of India.[3] It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia.[4] After the death of Ahmad Shah in about 1773, the Emirship was passed onto his children followed by grandchildren and its capital was shifted to Kabul. Ahmad Shah and his descendants were from the Sadozai line of the Abdalis (later called Durranis), making them the second Pashtun rulers of Kandahar, after the Hotaki Ghilzais.[5][6]

With the support of most tribal leaders, Ahmad Shah Durrani extended Afghan control from Meshed to Kashmir and Delhi, from the Amu Darya to the Arabian Sea.[7] Next to the Ottoman Empire, the Durrani was the greatest Muslim Empire in the second half of the eighteenth century.[7] The Durrani Empire is considered the foundation of the current state of Afghanistan,[8] with Ahmad Shah Durrani being credited as "Father" of Afghanistan.[6][9] Even before the death of Nader Shah of Persia in 1747, tribes around the Hindu Kush region had been growing stronger and were beginning to take advantage of the waning power of their distant rulers.[6]


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