Dyslexia

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Dyslexia is a broad term defining a learning disability that impairs a person's fluency or accuracy in being able to read, write, and spell, [1] and which can manifest itself as a difficulty with phonological awareness, phonological decoding, orthographic coding, auditory short-term memory, and/or rapid naming.[2][3] Dyslexia is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction.[4][5] It is believed that dyslexia can affect between 5 to 10 percent of a given population although there have been no studies to indicate an accurate percentage.[6][7][8]

There are three proposed cognitive subtypes of dyslexia: auditory, visual and attentional.[7][9][10][11][12][13] Although dyslexia is not an intellectual disability, it is considered both a learning disability[14][15] and a reading disability.[14][16] Dyslexia and IQ are not interrelated, since reading and cognition develop independently in individuals who have dyslexia.[17]

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