related topics
{son, year, death}
{language, word, form}
{church, century, christian}
{@card@, make, design}
{county, mile, population}
{country, population, people}
{area, part, region}
{war, force, army}
{rate, high, increase}
{government, party, election}
{god, call, give}

Count & Countess

Baronet & Baronetess

Earl was the Anglo-Saxon form and jarl the Scandinavian form of a title meaning "chieftain" and referring especially to chieftains set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it became obsolete in the Middle Ages and was replaced with duke (hertig/hertug). In later medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count (in England in the earlier period, it was more akin to duke; in Scotland it assimilated the concept of mormaer). However, earlier in Scandinavia jarl could also mean sovereign prince. For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway were in fact styled jarls and of no lesser rank than their neighbours styling themselves kings. Alternative names for the "Earl/Count" rank in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as Hakushaku during the Japanese Imperial era.

In modern Britain, an earl is a member of the peerage, ranking below a marquess and above viscount.[1] There never developed a feminine form of earl; countess is used as the equivalent feminine title.



According to Procopius, the Heruli, after having raided the European continent for several generations, returned to Scandinavia in 512 AD as a result of military defeats. As their old territory was now occupied by the Danes, they settled next to the Geats in present-day Sweden. While the Proto-Norse word for this mysterious tribe may have been erilaz, which is etymologically near "jarl" and "earl", and it has often been suggested they introduced the runes in Scandinavia[2], no elaborate theory exists to explain how the word came to be used as a title. Arguably, their knowledge in interpreting runes also meant they were gifted in martial arts and, as they gradually integrated, eril or jarl instead came to signify the rank of a leader.[3]

Full article ▸

related documents
Gaius Maecenas
Julio-Claudian dynasty
Charles VII of France
Nicolas Fouquet
House of Babenberg
Louis XVIII of France
Jane Seymour
Grand duchy
The Luck of Barry Lyndon
Lytton Strachey
Edward I of England
Guy of Lusignan
Thomas Gray
Alexander Pushkin
Howards End (film)
Nero Claudius Drusus
Harald V of Norway
Eileen Chang
Georg Ludwig von Trapp
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Afonso V of Portugal
Just Like That (novel)
Godwin, Earl of Wessex
Monarchy of the Netherlands
Luís de Camões
Wulfhere of Mercia
Beatrix of the Netherlands
François Villon