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Elba (Italian: Isola d'Elba, Latin: Ilva) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the coastal town of Piombino. The largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, Elba is also part of the National Park of the Tuscan Archipelago and the third largest island in Italy after Sicily and Sardinia. It is located between the Tyrrhenian Sea and Ligurian Sea, about 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of the French island of Corsica.

The island is divided into eight municipalities, of which Portoferraio is the main one, the others; Campo nell'Elba, Capoliveri, Marciana, Marciana Marina, Porto Azzurro, Rio Marina, and Rio nell'Elba, are part of the province of Livorno, with a total of about 30,000 inhabitants, which increases considerably during the summer.



The island of Elba is the largest remaining stretch of land from the ancient tract that once connected the Italian peninsula to Corsica. The northern coast faces the Ligurian Sea; the eastern coast the Piombino Channel; the southern coast the Tyrrhenian Sea; while the Corsica channel divides the western tip of the Island from neighbouring Corsica.

The terrain is quite varied, and is thus divided into several areas based on geomorphology. The mountainous and most recent part of the island can be found to the west, the center of which is dominated by Mount Capanne (1,018 metres (3,340 ft)), also called the "roof of the Tuscan Archipelago". The mountain is home to many animal species including the mouflon and wild boar, two species that flourish despite the continuous influx of tourists. The central part of the island is a mostly flat section with the width being reduced to just four kilometres. It is where the major centres can be found: Portoferraio, Campo nell'Elba. To the east is the oldest part of the island, formed over 400 million years ago. In the hilly area, dominated by Monte Calamita, are the deposits of iron that made Elba famous.


Rivers rarely exceed 3 km in length on the island and it is common for those of lesser length to dry up over the summer period. The most important, sorted by length, are:

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