Electronic tagging

related topics
{system, computer, user}
{law, state, case}
{area, community, home}
{city, large, area}
{film, series, show}
{day, year, event}
{woman, child, man}
{car, race, vehicle}

Electronic tagging is a form of non-surreptitious surveillance consisting of an electronic device attached to a person or vehicle, especially certain criminals, allowing their whereabouts to be monitored. In general, devices locate themselves using GPS and report their position back to a control centre, for example via a cellular (mobile) phone network. This form of criminal sentencing, or increasingly a form of pre-release from detention monitoring, is known under different names in different countries; for example in New Zealand it is referred to as "home detention", and in North America "electronic monitoring" is a more common term. Electronic monitoring has been said to be particularly useful for early detection of flight when defendants have been granted pretrial release [1], or for preparing incarcerated individuals for release back into the community. Increasingly Electronic tagging has become a tool for courts, penal institutions or hospital facilities, to manage individuals both within their facilities and external to their premises. Typical European usage of electronic tagging, will include pre-trial, and pre-release management of the defendant or offender. This supports the objective of lower populations in custody and verifying the reliance of the individual to behave and conform to court order or parole specifics, i.e "Can he or she be trusted ?", thus potentially reducing time under lock and key.

Contents

Background

In 1964, Ralph Kirkland Schwitzgebel (family name later shortened to "Gable") headed a research team at Harvard that experimented with a prototype electronic monitoring system. In 1969, he and William S. Hurd were granted a patent (#3,478,344). Also in 1969, Robert Schwitzgebel ("Gable"), a professor at UCLA and Claremont Graduate University in California, wrote an article in Psychology Today about an FCC-licensed experimental radio station to locate and send two-way radio signals to juvenile offenders. In Britain, however, in 1981, the writer Tom Stacey brought to the Home Office a proposal for the electronic tagging of offenders on a basis of tracking their movements, or fixing a home curfew, by cellular radio telephone technology. Stacey had been briefly imprisoned abroad in his former role as a foreign correspondent and had for several years served as a Prison Visitor back in England. He followed his presentation to the Home Office with a letter The Times (published October 6, 1982) outlining the proposal andhis immediate formation of the Offender's Tag Association, composed of electronic scientists, penologists and prominent citizens. The term 'tagging' thus entered the vocabulary in the penal context. In March 1983 the Offender's Tag Association held a national press conference. Later that year, in 1983, a district court judge, Jack Love persuaded Michael Goss, a computer salesperson, to develop a system to monitor five offenders in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Judge Love was supposedly inspired to act based upon a storyline in a Spider-Man comic, specifically the newspaper comic strip version where the Kingpin puts an electronic bracelet on the superhero primarily to follow his movements.[2] This was probably the first court-sanctioned use of electronic monitoring.

Full article ▸

related documents
MIT License
Clean room design
Authorization
ECHELON
Apache License
Alt.religion.scientology
Netiquette
Key-agreement protocol
Back Orifice 2000
Vladimir Levin
Pseudonymous remailer
Asure Software
Inter-process communication
BOS/360
XPilot
Gravis PC GamePad
AIM alliance
Vertical blank interrupt
Category 3 cable
Presentation Layer
ICab
Java Data Objects
HIPPI
Horizontal blank interrupt
Evolution (software)
Serial Line Internet Protocol
Advanced Encryption Standard process
Automated business process
Nascom
Netscape Communicator