Elland

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{town, population, incorporate}
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Coordinates: 53°40′59″N 1°50′24″W / 53.683°N 1.840°W / 53.683; -1.840

Elland is a market town in Calderdale, in the county of West Yorkshire, England, south of Halifax, by the River Calder and the Calder and Hebble Navigation. Its name comes from "ea-land", land near the water.[1] It had a population in United Kingdom Census 2001 of 14,554.[2]

Contents

History

Mentioned in the 1086 Domesday Book as Elant and as being of more importance at that time than the nearby towns of Halifax and Huddersfield, Elland was a centre of wool production. The decline of the woollen industry had a significant effect on the town, with many of the mills having been demolished or converted to residence.

Elland is one of the relatively few cases retaining continuity of tenure from before the Norman Conquest into the Middle Ages, as the Elland family were, in origin, Anglo-Saxon thegns. The Manor of Elland, with Greetland and Southowram, forms an island of the Honour of Pontefract in the surrounding Manor of Wakefield. In 1350 Sir John de Eland was murdered, as was his son in the following year, which extinguished the family in the male line and the Manor of Elland passed into the hands of the Savile family. From this period, the manor house ceased to be the principal dwelling of a gentry family, as the Saviles had their seat at the moated manor of Thornhill. Elland manor house was therefore never completely reconstructed and, when it was dismantled and excavated in 1975 by the West Yorkshire Archaeology Unit, it was found to incorporate a 13th century solar wing – one of the earliest secular buildings in the county. The manor house stood on a knoll aligned with the bridge over the River Calder, and was destroyed during the construction of Calderdale Way bypass. The farm buildings, however, survive.

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