# Enthalpy of vaporization

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The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ΔHvap), also known as the heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas at a given pressure (often atmospheric pressure).

It is often measured at the normal boiling point of a substance; although tabulated values are usually corrected to 298 K, the correction is often smaller than the uncertainty in the measured value.

The heat of vaporization is temperature-dependent, though a constant heat of vaporization can be assumed for small temperature ranges and below Tr<<1.0. The heat of vaporization diminishes with increasing temperature and it vanishes completely at the critical temperature (Tr=1) because above the critical temperature the liquid and vapor phases no longer co-exist.

## Contents

### Units

Values are usually quoted in J/mol or kJ/mol (molar enthalpy of vaporization), although kJ/kg or J/g (specific heat of vaporization), and older units like kcal/mol, cal/g and Btu/lb are sometimes still used, among others.

### Physical model for vaporization

A simple physical model for the liquid-gas phase transformation has been proposed recently [1] . It is suggested that the energy required to free an atom from the liquid is equivalent with the energy needed to overcome the surface resistance of the liquid. The model allows calculating the latent heat by multiplying the maximum surface area covering an atom (Fig. 1) with the surface tension and the number of atoms in the liquid. The calculated latent heat of vaporization values for the investigated 45 elements agrees well with experiments.

### Enthalpy of condensation

The enthalpy of condensation (or heat of condensation) is by definition equal to the enthalpy of vaporization with the opposite sign: enthalpy changes of vaporization are always positive (heat is absorbed by the substance), whereas enthalpy changes of condensation are always negative (heat is released by the substance).