Epinephrine

related topics
{disease, patient, cell}
{acid, form, water}
{ship, engine, design}

Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is a hormone and neurotransmitter.[1] It increases heart rate, contracts blood vessels, dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system.[2] Chemically, epinephrine is a catecholamine, a monoamine produced only by the adrenal glands from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.

The term adrenaline is derived from the Latin roots ad- and renes and literally means on the kidney, in reference to the adrenal gland's anatomic location on the kidney. The Greek roots epi- and nephros have similar meanings, and give rise to epinephrine. The term epinephrine is often shortened to epi in medical jargon.[3]

Adrenal extracts containing adrenaline were first obtained by Polish physiologist Napoleon Cybulski in 1895. These extracts, which he called "nadnerczyna", contained epinephrine and other catecholamines.[4] Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine and his assistant Keizo Uenaka independently discovered adrenaline in 1900.[5][6] In 1901, Takamine successfully isolated and purified the hormone from the adrenal glands of sheep and oxen.[7] Adrenaline was first synthesized in the laboratory by Friedrich Stolz and Henry Drysdale Dakin, independently, in 1904.[6]

Contents

Full article ▸

related documents
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Sickle-cell disease
Vagus nerve
Chronic pain
Tetanus
Glaucoma
Intensive insulinotherapy
Urinary tract infection
Hernia
Typhoid fever
Haemophilia
Lassa fever
HIV vaccine
Periodontitis
Cirrhosis
Dermatology
Lymph node
Scar
Botulism
Ménière's disease
Metastasis
Osteoporosis
Yellow fever
Antibiotic
Yersinia pestis
Turner syndrome
Plague (disease)
Seizure
Bloodletting
Rett syndrome