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{war, force, army}
{work, book, publish}
{theory, work, human}
{film, series, show}
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{system, computer, user}
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Espionage or spying involves an individual obtaining information that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. Espionage is inherently clandestine, lest the legitimate holder of the information change plans or take other countermeasures once it is known that the information is in unauthorized hands.

Espionage is usually part of an institutional effort by a government or corporation, and the term is most readily associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies, primarily for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage. Government surveillance of civil society groups, social movements, and individuals involved in political activism, such as COINTELPRO conducted by the FBI, is not covered by the present article.

See clandestine HUMINT for the basic concepts of such information collection, and subordinate articles such as clandestine HUMINT operational techniques and clandestine HUMINT asset recruiting for discussions of the tradecraft used to collect this information.


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