Ethernet over twisted pair

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Ethernet over twisted pair refers to the use of cables that contain insulated copper wires twisted together in pairs for the physical layer of an Ethernet network—that is, a network in which the Ethernet protocol provides the data link layer. Other Ethernet cable standards use coaxial cable or optical fiber. There are several different standards for this copper-based physical medium. The most widely used are 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T, running at 10 Mbit/s (also Mbps or Mbs-1), 100 Mbit/s, and 1000 Mbit/s (1 Gbit/s), respectively. These three standards all use the same connectors. Higher speed implementations nearly always support the lower speeds as well, so that in most cases different generations of equipment can be freely mixed. They use 8 position modular connectors, usually called RJ45 in the context of Ethernet over twisted pair. The cables usually used are four-pair twisted pair cable (though 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX only actually require two of the pairs). Each of the three standards support both full-duplex and half-duplex communication.

The common names for the standards derive from aspects of the physical media. The number refers to the theoretical maximum transmission speed in megabits per second (Mbit/s). The BASE is short for baseband, meaning that there is no frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) or other frequency shifting modulation in use; each signal has full control of wire, on a single frequency. The T designates twisted pair cable, where the pair of wires for each signal is twisted together to reduce radio frequency interference and crosstalk between pairs (FEXT and NEXT). Where there are several standards for the same transmission speed, they are distinguished by a letter or digit following the T, such as TX.



Twisted-pair Ethernet standards are such that the majority of cables can be wired "straight-through" (pin 1 to pin 1, pin 2 to pin 2 and so on), but others may need to be wired in the "crossover" form (receive to transmit and transmit to receive).

10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX only require two pairs to operate, located on pins 1 plus 2 and pins 3 plus 6. Since 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX need only two pairs and Category 5 cable has four pairs, it is possible, but not standards compliant, to run two network connections (or a network connection and two phone lines) over a Category 5 cable by using the normally unused pairs (pins 4–5, 7–8) in 10- and 100-Mbit/s configurations. In practice, great care must be taken to separate these pairs as most 10/100-Mbit/s hubs, switches and PCs internally hardwire pins 4–5 together and pins 7–8 together, thereby creating a short-circuit across each "unused" pair. Moreover, 1000BASE-T requires all four pairs to operate, pins 1 and 2, 3 and 6 — as well as 4 and 5, 7 and 8.

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