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A father is defined as a male parent of any type of offspring.[1] The adjective "paternal" refers to father, parallel to "maternal" for mother. The verb 'to father' means to procreate or to sire a child.


Father-child relationship

The father-child relationship is the defining factor of the fatherhood role in life. A 'Dad' does not always have to be a child's biological father. Some children refer to their stepfathers as dad. Stepfathers are not the biological Fathers. When the original Fathers die, or divorce, the Mother may marry a second one who becomes the Stepfather of the child. A Father is known as a man who exercises paternal care over other persons. [2][3] Most fathers are naturally protective, supportive, and responsible and are able to provide a number of significant benefits to themselves, their communities, and their children.[4] Involved fathers offer developmentally specific provisions to their sons and daughters throughout the life cycle and are impacted themselves by their doing so.[5] Active father figures have a key role to play in reducing behavior problems in boys and psychological problems in young women.[6] For example, children who experience significant father involvement tend to exhibit higher scores on assessments of cognitive development, enhanced social skills and fewer behavior problems.[7][8][9] An increased amount of father-child involvement has also proven to increase a child's social stability, educational achievement, and even their potential to have a solid marriage as an adult. The children are also more curious about the world around them and develop greater problem solving skills.[10] Children who were raised without fathers perceive themselves to be less cognitively and physically competent than their peers from father-present families.[11] Mothers raising children without fathers reported more severe disputes with their child. Sons raised without fathers showed more feminine but no less masculine characteristics of gender role behavior.[12]

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