Fourier transform

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In mathematics, the Fourier transform is the operation that decomposes a signal into its constituent frequencies. Thus the Fourier transform of a musical chord is a mathematical representation of the amplitudes of the individual notes that make it up. The original signal depends on time, and therefore is called the time domain representation of the signal, whereas the Fourier transform depends on frequency and is called the frequency domain representation of the signal. The term Fourier transform refers both to the frequency domain representation of the signal and the process that transforms the signal to its frequency domain representation.

More precisely, the Fourier transform transforms one complex-valued function of a real variable into another. In effect, the Fourier transform decomposes a function into oscillatory functions. The Fourier transform and its generalizations are the subject of Fourier analysis. In this specific case, both the time and frequency domains are unbounded linear continua. It is possible to define the Fourier transform of a function of several variables, which is important for instance in the physical study of wave motion and optics. It is also possible to generalize the Fourier transform on discrete structures such as finite groups. The efficient computation of such structures, by fast Fourier transform, is essential for high-speed computing.


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