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Fourier transform spectroscopy is a measurement technique whereby spectra are collected based on measurements of the coherence of a radiative source, using timedomain or spacedomain measurements of the electromagnetic radiation or other type of radiation. It can be applied to a variety of types of spectroscopy including optical spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, FTNIRS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI)^{[1]}, mass spectrometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. There are several methods for measuring the temporal coherence of the light (see: fieldautocorrelation), including the continuous wave Michelson or Fourier transform spectrometer and the pulsed Fourier transform spectrograph (which is more sensitive and has a much shorter sampling time than conventional spectroscopic techniques, but is only applicable in a laboratory environment).
The term Fourier transform spectroscopy reflects the fact that in all these techniques, a Fourier transform is required to turn the raw data into the actual spectrum, and in many of the cases in optics involving interferometers, is based on the Wienerâ€“Khinchin theorem.
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