Genetics

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Chromosome
DNA · RNA
Genome
Heredity
Mutation
Nucleotide
Variation

Glossary
Index
Outline

Introduction
History

Evolution · Molecular
Population genetics
Mendelian inheritance
Quantitative genetics
Molecular genetics

DNA sequencing
Genetic engineering
Genomics · Topics
Medical genetics

Branches in genetics

Genetics (from Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos, “genitive” and that from γένεσις genesis, “origin”[1][2][3]), a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.[4][5]

Genetics deals with the molecular structure and function of genes, with gene behavior in the context of a cell or organism (e.g. dominance and epigenetics), with patterns of inheritance from parent to offspring, and with gene distribution, variation and change in populations. Given that genes are universal to living organisms, genetics can be applied to the study of any living system from viruses and bacteria, through plants (especially crops) to humans (for example in Medical Genetics)

The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. However, the modern science of genetics, which seeks to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century.[6] Although he did not know the physical basis for heredity, Mendel observed that organisms inherit traits via discrete units of inheritance, which are now called genes.

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