Geography of Burundi

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Burundi is located in central Africa, to the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, at the co-ordinates 3°30′S 30°0′E / 3.5°S 30°E / -3.5; 30.

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Physical geography

Burundi occupies an area equal to 27,830 square kilometres in size, of which 25,650 km² is land. The country has 974 kilometres of land border: 233 km of which is shared with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 290 km with Rwanda and 451 km with Tanzania. As a landlocked country, Burundi possesses no coastline, although it straddles the crest of the Nile-Congo River watershed. The farthest headwaters of the Nile, the Ruvyironza River, has its source in Burundi.

Climate

Burundi in general has a tropical highland climate, with a considerable daily temperature range in many areas. Temperature also varies considerably from one region to another, chiefly as a result of differences in altitude. The central plateau enjoys pleasantly cool weather, with an average temperature of 20 °C (68 °F). The area around Lake Tanganyika is warmer, averaging 23 °C (73.4 °F); the highest mountain areas are cooler, averaging 16 °C (60.8 °F). Bujumbura’s average annual temperature is
23 °C (73.4 °F). Rain is irregular, falling most heavily in the northwest. Dry seasons vary in length, and there are sometimes long periods of drought. However, four seasons can be distinguished: the long dry season (June–August), the short wet season (September–November), the short dry season (December–January), and the long wet season (February–May). Most of Burundi receives between 1,300 and 1,600 mm (51.2 and 63.0 in) of rainfall a year. The Ruzizi Plain and the northeast receive between 750 and 1,000 mm (29.5 and 39.4 in).

Terrain

The terrain of Burundi is hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in the east. The southern and eastern plains have been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as part of the Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands ecoregion.

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