Geography of Ghana

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{island, water, area}
{line, north, south}
{water, park, boat}

7 %
22 %
35 %
24 % (1993 est.)

Ghana is a country in West Africa, along the Gulf of Guinea, just a few degrees north of the equator.

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Location and size

Ghana, which lies in the center of the West African coast, shares 2,093 km of land borders with the three French-speaking nations of Burkina Faso (548 km) to the north, Côte d'Ivoire (668 km) to the west, and Togo (877 km) to the east. To the south are the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean.

With a total area of 238,533 square kilometers, Ghana is about the size of the United Kingdom, or slightly smaller than Oregon. Its southernmost coast at Cape Three Points is 4° 30' north of the equator. From here, the country extends inland for some 670 kilometers to about 11° north. The distance across the widest part, between longitude 1° 12' east and longitude 3° 15' west, measures about 560 kilometers. The Greenwich Meridian, which passes through London, also traverses the eastern part of Ghana at Tema.

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nmi (44.4 km; 27.6 mi)
continental shelf: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi)
exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi)
territorial sea: 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi)

Terrain of Ghana

The terrain consists mostly low plains with the Kwahu Plateau in the south-central area. Half of the country lies less than 152 meters (499 ft) above sea level, and the highest point is 883 meters (2,897 ft). The 537 kilometers (334 mi) coastline is mostly a low, sandy shore backed by plains and scrub and intersected by several rivers and streams, most of which are navigable only by canoe. A tropical rain forest belt, broken by heavily forested hills and many streams and rivers, extends northward from the shore, near the Côte d'Ivoire frontier. This area, known as the "Ashanti," produces most of the country's cocoa, minerals, and timber. North of this belt, the country varies from 91 to 396 meters (299 to 1,299 ft) above sea level and is covered by low bush, park-like savanna, and grassy plains.

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