Geologist

related topics
{island, water, area}
{school, student, university}
{theory, work, human}
{company, market, business}
{work, book, publish}
{math, energy, light}
{acid, form, water}
{law, state, case}
{water, park, boat}

For other uses, see Geologist (disambiguation).

A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes and history that has shaped it. Geologists usually engage in studying geology. Geologists, studying more of an applied science than a theoretical one, must approach Geology using physics, chemistry and biology as well as other sciences. Geologists, compared to scientists engaged in other fields, are generally more exposed to the outdoors than staying in laboratories; although some geologists prefer to perform most of their studies in the lab.

Geologists are engaged in exploration for mining companies in search of metals, oils, and other Earth resources. They are also in the forefront of natural hazards and disasters warning and mitigation, studying earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, weather storms, and the like; their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Currently, geologists are also the scientists most engaged in the discussion of climate change, being the ones who hold the history and evidence for this Earth process.

Contents

Training / Schooling

Their training typically includes significant coursework in physics, mathematics, chemistry and biology, in addition to classes offered through the geology department; historical and physical geology, igneous and metamorphic petrology and petrography, hydrogeology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, mineralogy, palaeontology, physical geography and structural geology are among the many required areas of study. Most geologists also need skills in GIS and other mapping techniques. Geology students often spend portions of the year, especially the summer though sometimes during a January term, living and working under field conditions with faculty members (often referred to as "field camp"). Many non-geologists often take geology courses or have expertise in geology that they find valuable to their fields; this is common in the fields of geography, engineering, chemistry, urban planning, environmental studies, among others.

Areas of specialization

Geologists may concentrate their studies or research in one or more of the following disciplines:

  • Economic geology: the study of ore genesis, and the mechanisms of ore creation, geostatistics.
  • Engineering geology: application of the geologic sciences to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geologic factors affecting the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and adequately provided for;
  • Geophysics: the applied branch deals with the application of physical methods such as gravity, seismicity, electricity, magnetic properties to study the earth.
  • Geochemistry: the applied branch deals with the study of the chemical makeup and behaviour of rocks, and the study of the behaviour of their minerals.
  • Geochronology: the study of isotope geology specifically toward determining the date within the past of rock formation, metamorphism, mineralization and geological events (notably, meteorite impacts).
  • Geomorphology: the study of landforms and the processes that create them
  • Hydrogeology: the study of the origin, occurrence and movement of groundwater water in a subsurface geological system.
  • Igneous petrology: the study of igneous processes such as igneous differentiation, fractional crystallization, intrusive and volcanological phenomena .
  • Isotope geology: the study of the isotopic composition of rocks to determine the processes of rock and planetary formation.
  • Metamorphic petrology: the study of the effects of metamorphism on minerals and rocks.
  • Marine geology: the study of the seafloor; involves geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal margins. Marine geology has strong ties to physical oceanography and plate tectonics.
  • Palaeoclimatology: the application of geological science to determine the climatic conditions present in the Earth's atmosphere within the Earth's history.
  • Palaeontology: the classification and taxonomy of fossils within the geological record and the construction of a palaeontological history of the Earth.
  • Pedology: the study of soil, soil formation, and regolith formation.
  • Petroleum geology: the study of sedimentary basins applied to the search for hydrocarbons (oil exploration).
  • Sedimentology: the study of sedimentary rocks, strata, formations, eustasy and the processes of modern day sedimentary and erosive systems.
  • Structural geology: the study of folds, faults, foliation and rock microstructure to determine the deformational history of rocks and regions.
  • Volcanology: the study of volcanoes, their eruptions, lavas, magma processes and hazards.

Full article ▸

related documents
Great Victoria Desert
Lake Nicaragua
Old Bedford River
Klyuchevskaya Sopka
Geography of Croatia
Andaman Sea
Geography of Western Sahara
Cabot Strait
Frobisher Bay
IJsselmeer
Sayan Mountains
Narawntapu National Park
Bald Rock National Park
Geography of Guadeloupe
Archean
Extreme weather
Asthenosphere
Firth
Geography of the West Bank
Microclimate
Geography of Namibia
Orinoco
Namadgi National Park
Ardennes
Oosterschelde
Lake Agassiz
Strait of Belle Isle
River Ouse, Sussex
Geography of Djibouti
Blue Mountains National Park