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In linguistics, gerund (abbreviated ger) is a term used to refer to various non-finite verb forms in various languages:

  • As applied to English, it refers to the usage of a verb (in its -ing form) and as a noun (for example, the verb "learning" in the sentence "Learning is an easy process for some"). This is also the term's use as applied to Latin; see Latin conjugation.
  • As applied to Spanish, it refers to an adverbial participle (a verbal adverb), called in Spanish the gerundio.
  • As applied to French, it refers either to the adverbial participle—also called the gerundive—or to the present adjectival participle.
  • As applied to Portuguese, it refers to an adverbial participle (a verbal adverb), called the gerúndio.
  • As applied to Hebrew, it refers either to the verb's action noun, or to the part of the infinitive following the infinitival prefix (also called the infinitival construct).
  • As applied to Frisian, it refers to one of two verb forms frequently referred to as infinitives, this one ending in -n. It shows up in nominalizations and is selected by perception verbs.
  • As applied to Japanese, it designates verb and verbals adjective forms in dictionary form paired with the referral particle no, which turns the verbal into a concept or property noun.
  • As applied to Turkish, it refers to the Turkish verbal nouns formed by appending -ma or -me, depending on vowel harmony, to the verb stem. The Turkish gerund is rather similar in meaning and use to the English gerund.
  • As applied to other languages, it may refer to almost any non-finite verb form; however, it most often refers to an action noun, by analogy with its use as applied to English or Latin.


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