Giuseppe Garibaldi

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Giuseppe Garibaldi (Italian pronunciation: [dʒuˈzɛppe ɡariˈbaldi] (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian military and political figure. In his twenties, he joined the Carbonari Italian patriot revolutionaries, and fled Italy after a failed insurrection. Garibaldi took part in the War of the Farrapos and the Uruguayan Civil War leading the Italian Legion, and afterward returned to Italy as a commander in the conflicts of the Risorgimento. He has been dubbed the "Hero of the Two Worlds" in tribute to his military expeditions in both South America and Europe.[1] He is considered an Italian national hero.

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Early years

Giuseppe Garibaldi was born on July 4, 1807 in Nice (Italian: Nizza), which at the time was the capital of the French department of Alpes-Maritimes, before it was returned to the House of Savoy, the rulers of the Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1814 following Napoleon's defeat. In 1860, however, the Savoys returned the city to France (an action Garibaldi opposed), to get French aid in Italy's unification wars. Garibaldi's family's involvement in coastal trade drew him to a life at sea. He participated actively in the community of the Nizzardo Italians and was certified in 1832 as a merchant marine captain. An influential day in Garibaldi's life came in April 1833, in Taganrog, Russia where he moored for ten days with the schooner Clorinda and a shipment of oranges. In a seaport inn, he met Giovanni Battista Cuneo from Oneglia, a political immigrant from Italy and member of the secret movement La Giovine Italia ("Young Italy"), founded by Giuseppe Mazzini, an impassioned proponent of Italian unification as a liberal republic through political and social reforms. Garibaldi joined the society, and took an oath dedicating his life to the struggle to liberate his homeland from Austrian dominance.

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